Tiena capitis is a fungal infection that is most common in immunocompromised individuals and children, but can affect anyone of any age. The fungus thrives on dead tissue and warm, moist environments. A small injury to the scalp can cause infection. There are two main species of tinea capitis – Microsporum fungi and Trichophyton globosus. Microsporum fungi are more common in Africa, Asia, and Southern Europe. Both are a common cause of the scalp condition.
Treatment of tinea capitis
The treatment of tinea capitis is an ongoing process. It may take weeks, sometimes months, for the infection to be completely cleared. The primary goal is to control the infection while it is still treatable. Treatment of tinea capitis requires oral antifungal medication, which is usually fluconazole, terbinafine, or itraconazole. Itraconazole is the preferred agent, though griseofulvin may be helpful in resource-poor settings. Topical antifungals are not recommended and may cause stomach upset and diarrhea. They should be taken with a meal to minimize any adverse side effects, such as changes in taste or smell.
Often, removing the crusts from the affected areas can relieve itching and prevent the secondary infection. The treatment of tinea capitis should be done in a systematic way, as a single case may affect several members of a household. Those infected with the condition should avoid touching other people with contaminated clothes and bedding. If the infection is severe, the skin may become permanently scarred and permanent hair loss may result. In some cases, a patient will experience permanent hair loss or alopecia.
Systemic antifungal medication is required to cure tinea capitis, because topical agents cannot penetrate the hair follicle. In the past, griseofulvin was the most common treatment. It is no longer used, but newer antifungal agents, like ketoconazole, are at least as effective as the former. In addition to terbinafine, a topical shampoo containing selenium sulfide or povidone-iodine may reduce the transmission of spores.
The cause of tinea capitis is unknown, although it is contagious and spreads through contact with infected individuals and contaminated objects. Often, this fungus can survive on contaminated objects or surfaces for months, even years. Those with tinea capitis should seek medical attention immediately. Treatment of tinea capitis is important and the symptoms of the disease are often similar to those of other skin conditions.
A healthcare provider may recommend a swab culture as part of the diagnosis. The healthcare provider will then scrape the infected area of the scalp and pluck out the affected hairs. A technician will then examine these samples under a microscope. A yellow crust or pus may form as a result of the infection. Patients may also experience a low-grade fever or swollen lymph glands.
A doctor can suspect tinea capitis based on the appearance of the scalp. A biopsy may reveal dermatophytes. However, a skin lesion biopsy is not necessary for the diagnosis. A PCR screening can confirm the diagnosis faster. The doctor may also request a skin biopsy. If the infection is not treated, it may lead to permanent hair loss and scarring. In such cases, a systemic approach is necessary.
Treatment of tinea corporis
Tinea corporis is a common skin infection, affecting individuals of all ages. The disease is usually not life-threatening, but patients with weakened immune systems and people who live in crowded environments may be at higher risk. Its symptoms include red, itchy patches, and a scaly, raised border. Tinea can occur anywhere on the body and can be itchy and inflamed. If left untreated, this infection can spread to other areas of the body.
Topical antifungal agents are effective in managing tinea corporis. These agents should be applied to the affected area and an adequate margin of skin around the lesion. Treatment should be continued for a minimum of a week after the visible rash has cleared. In severe cases, oral antifungals may be required. While topical antifungals are effective for tinea corporis, recurrence of infection is common.
The best treatment for tinea corporis is a multidisciplinary approach. In addition to physicians, specialists, and specialty-trained nurses, pharmacists are also involved in the care of patients with this condition. Physicians perform diagnosis and prescribe treatments for patients, while pharmacists evaluate antifungal coverage, report back to clinicians, and monitor potential hepatotoxicity. To address the most common symptoms, pharmacists prescribe oral terbinafine to patients.
There are no randomized trials of oral antifungals for the treatment of tinea corporis. However, updated Cochrane reviews of oral antifungals have addressed this gap and have helped bridge the knowledge gap. Despite these gaps in the treatment of tinea corporis, topical treatments have been proven effective in treating the disease. But there are still limited trials of oral and systemic antifungals for this infection.
Treatment for tinea corporis is important in preventing recurrent infections and ensuring that the patient is free of pain. The best antifungal cream for this condition has an excellent track record and is recommended by dermatologists. Naftifine cream 2% has proven to be effective against the fungus. It also shows a significant improvement over the vehicle alone in terms of treatment effectiveness. Treatment related adverse events were minimal.
In addition to the above-mentioned treatments, there are over-the-counter products that can help treat tinea corporis. Topical antifungal creams and lotions can be applied to the affected area and can also be used to control the infection. Oral medications that contain antifungals can be prescribed by a doctor. Using a topical antifungal cream or lotion will keep the infection from reoccurring.
Treatment of tinea barbae
Tinea barbae can occur on the scalp and hair, and the therapeutic approach is similar to that of tinea capitis. Antifungal agents are applied topically to the affected area, and warm compresses are used to remove debris and crusts. Oral antifungal therapy is also needed. These modalities are detailed in Medication. In most cases, treatment will last for about 4-6 weeks.
Inflammatory kerion is the most common symptom of tinea barbae infection. Inflammatory kerion is a mass of wet skin that is the result of a severe inflammatory response to a dermatophyte. Tinea barbae is an uncommon fungal infection that affects males. The infection affects the scalp and surrounding skin, primarily in rural areas with close contact with cattle.
If you suspect that you have tinea barbae, your doctor may order a fungal culture or perform a direct microscopic examination. Those refractory to treatment may also undergo skin biopsy or histopathological examination. If a skin biopsy is required, it is usually done with a Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain. This staining shows fungi and inflammatory changes in the skin.
In adults, oral antifungal medications are the mainstay of treatment. It is important to note that topical medications do not penetrate the hair follicle, and thus cannot treat the infection effectively. However, the most commonly prescribed drug is griseofulvin, which is no longer available in some countries. Newer antifungal drugs such as ketoconazole are at least as effective, although they are ineffective against microsporum species. Selenium sulfide shampoo and povidone-iodine are also effective in reducing spore transmission.
While there are no specific treatments for tinea barbae, some of these medications may be prescribed for patients with alopecia or ectothrix infection. This type of infection occurs in the endothrix, which means that the fungi invade the hair shaft. Its symptoms typically involve inflammation of the scalp, and sometimes broken hair shafts. It is important to follow instructions given by your doctor for the treatment.
Ringworm is another fungal infection that affects the skin. The infection begins as a red scaly bump, which may have raised borders. Symptoms include itching, stinging, and burning, but are not common in everyone. If left untreated, ringworm can lead to secondary abscess. Treatment should include oral antifungal medications and topical solutions. It is important to remember that ringworm grows in moist environments, so be sure to dry your hair after bathing and wear clothes that are loose.